Why Has It Been Difficult To Create International Agreements To Address Climate Change Quizlet

Conflict: A recent study called for caution in the relationship between conflict and climate change due to sample biases (Adams et al., 2018) 1089. Insufficient consideration of the various factors of conflict often leads to inconsistent associations between climate change and reported conflicts (e.B. Hsiang et al., 2013; Hsiang and Burke 2014; Buhaug, 2015, 2016; Carleton and Hsiang, 2016; Carleton et al., 2016)1090. There are also inconsistent relationships between climate change, migration and conflict (p.B Theisen et al., 2013; Buhaug et al., 2014; Selby, 2014; Christiansen, 2016; Brzoska and Fröhlich, 2016; Burrows and Kinney, 2016; Reyer et al., 2017c; Waha et al., 2017)1091. In all regions of the world and from the international level to the micro level, the relationship between drought and conflict is weak in most circumstances (Buhaug, 2016; von Uexkull et al., 2016)1092. However, droughts greatly increase the likelihood of protracted conflicts for particularly vulnerable nations or groups due to the dependence of their livelihoods on agriculture. This is particularly relevant for groups of least developed countries (by Uexkull et al., 2016)1093, in sub-Saharan Africa (Serdeczny et al., 2016; Almer et al., 2017)1094 and the Middle East (Waha et al., 2017)1095. Hsiang et al. (2013) 1096 reported causal evidence and convergences in studies that climate change is linked to human conflict in all major regions of the world and across a range of spatial and temporal scales. An increase in temperature of 1°C or more in extreme precipitation increases the frequency of conflict between groups by 14% (Hsiang et al., 2013)1097. If the world warms by 2°C to 4°C by 2050, rates of human conflict could rise. Some causal associations between violent conflict and socio-political instability have been reported at the local and global levels and from hour to hour (Hsiang and Burke, 2014) 1098. An increase in temperature of one standard deviation increased the risk of interpersonal conflict by 2.4% and intergroup conflict by 11.3% (Burke et al., 2015a)1099.

Risks of armed conflict and climate-related disasters are relatively common in ethnically fragmented countries, suggesting that there is no clear signal that environmental disasters directly trigger armed conflict (Schleussner et al., 2016a)1100. There is no literature that directly estimates the proportion of species that are at increased risk of a global (as opposed to local) commitment to extinction due to climate change, as this is inherently difficult to quantify. .

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